WG Magic Tees
A Magic Tee (or Magic T or Hybrid Tee) is a Hybrid or 3dB Coupler used in Microwave Systems. The three-dimensional structure of the Magic-Tee makes it less readily constructed in planar technologies such as microstrip or stripline.
The Magic Tee is a combination of E and H Plane Tees. Arm 3 forms an H-plane Tee with arms 1 and 2. Arm 4 forms an E-plane tee with arms 1 and 2. Arms 1 and 2 are sometimes called the side or collinear arms. Port 3 is called the H-plane port, and is also called the Sum port or the P-port (for Parallel). Port 4 is the E-plane Port, and is also called the Difference Port, or S-port (for Series).
To function correctly, the Magic Tee must incorporate an internal matching structure. This structure typically consists of a post inside the H-plane Tee and an inductive Iris inside the E-plane Limb, though many alternative structures have been proposed. Dependence on the matching structure means that the Magic Tee will only work over a limited frequency band.
The name Magic Tee is derived from the way in which power is divided among the various ports. A signal injected into the H-plane Port will be divided equally between Ports 1 and 2, and will be in phase. A signal injected into the E-plane Port will also be divided equally between Ports 1 and 2, but will be 180 degrees out of phase. If signals are fed in through Ports 1 and 2, they are added at the H-plane Port and subtracted at the E-plane Port.
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